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Easy GDPR compliant privacy-policy generator. So if you ever had to prove someone's consent, you can do so. By Amy Barnes. Large or small, these triple chocolate cookies are crispy on the outside and chewy on the inside.
Refrigerating the batter for 48 hours before baking is ideal, as this allows the dough to fully form its flavor.
By Josh Graham. A melt in your mouth cookie with an apricot filling that people beg for every year. By Heidi Hankin. Some are simple, some are fancy—all are delicious.
By Vanessa Greaves. Salted Chocolate Cookies Rating: Unrated. The addition of sea salt takes these big, soft, chocolaty, fudgy cookies to another level.
Chocolate lovers will find these cookies irresistible. By Yoly. A gluten-free version of classic magic cookie bars with layers.
By Gluten-Free-Wifey. Traditional Italian-American bakery-style butter cookies that will make you feel like you bought them from your favorite local bakery in New York!
Fill them with raspberry or apricot preserves, or chocolate, or dip one side in chocolate and cover with sprinkles--or do both! Whatever you choose, these are sure to be your new favorite recipe for every holiday and celebration to come!
Use only butter in these for best flavor. By Sally. This simple, tasty recipe yields 12 to 16 cookies, but is so simple that it can be doubled or tripled!
From the web server's point of view, a request from an attacker then has the same authentication as the victim's requests; thus the request is performed on behalf of the victim's session.
Listed here are various scenarios of cookie theft and user session hijacking even without stealing user cookies that work with websites relying solely on HTTP cookies for user identification.
Traffic on a network can be intercepted and read by computers on the network other than the sender and receiver particularly over unencrypted open Wi-Fi.
This traffic includes cookies sent on ordinary unencrypted HTTP sessions. Where network traffic is not encrypted, attackers can therefore read the communications of other users on the network, including HTTP cookies as well as the entire contents of the conversations, for the purpose of a man-in-the-middle attack.
An attacker could use intercepted cookies to impersonate a user and perform a malicious task, such as transferring money out of the victim's bank account.
This issue can be resolved by securing the communication between the user's computer and the server by employing Transport Layer Security HTTPS protocol to encrypt the connection.
A server can specify the Secure flag while setting a cookie, which will cause the browser to send the cookie only over an encrypted channel, such as an TLS connection.
If an attacker is able to cause a DNS server to cache a fabricated DNS entry called DNS cache poisoning , then this could allow the attacker to gain access to a user's cookies.
Victims reading the attacker's message would download this image from f Since f If an attacker is able to accomplish this, it is usually the fault of the Internet Service Providers for not properly securing their DNS servers.
However, the severity of this attack can be lessened if the target website uses secure cookies. In this case, the attacker would have the extra challenge  of obtaining the target website's TLS certificate from a certificate authority , since secure cookies can only be transmitted over an encrypted connection.
Without a matching TLS certificate, victims' browsers would display a warning message about the attacker's invalid certificate, which would help deter users from visiting the attacker's fraudulent website and sending the attacker their cookies.
As an example, an attacker may post a message on www. When another user clicks on this link, the browser executes the piece of code within the onclick attribute, thus replacing the string document.
This API allows pages to specify a proxy server that would get the reply, and this proxy server is not subject to the same-origin policy. For example, a victim is reading an attacker's posting on www.
The script generates a request to www. Since the request is for www. Hence, the attacker would be able to harvest the victim's cookies.
In this case, the proxy server would only see the raw, encrypted bytes of the HTTP request. For example, Bob might be browsing a chat forum where another user, Mallory, has posted a message.
Suppose that Mallory has crafted an HTML image element that references an action on Bob's bank's website rather than an image file , e.
If Bob's bank keeps his authentication information in a cookie, and if the cookie hasn't expired, then the attempt by Bob's browser to load the image will submit the withdrawal form with his cookie, thus authorizing a transaction without Bob's approval.
Cookiejacking is a form of hacking wherein an attacker can gain access to session cookies of an Internet Explorer user.
Besides privacy concerns, cookies also have some technical drawbacks. In particular, they do not always accurately identify users, they can be used for security attacks, and they are often at odds with the Representational State Transfer REST software architectural style.
If more than one browser is used on a computer, each usually has a separate storage area for cookies. Hence, cookies do not identify a person, but a combination of a user account, a computer, and a web browser.
Thus, anyone who uses multiple accounts, computers, or browsers has multiple sets of cookies. Likewise, cookies do not differentiate between multiple users who share the same user account , computer, and browser.
As an example, if the shopping cart of an online shop is built using cookies, the content of the cart may not change when the user goes back in the browser's history: if the user presses a button to add an item in the shopping cart and then clicks on the "Back" button, the item remains in the shopping cart.
This might not be the intention of the user, who possibly wanted to undo the addition of the item. This can lead to unreliability, confusion, and bugs.
Web developers should therefore be aware of this issue and implement measures to handle such situations. This allows them to be used in place of session cookies.
The HTTP protocol includes the basic access authentication and the digest access authentication protocols, which allow access to a web page only when the user has provided the correct username and password.
If the server requires such credentials for granting access to a web page, the browser requests them from the user and, once obtained, the browser stores and sends them in every subsequent page request.
This information can be used to track the user. Some users may be tracked based on the IP address of the computer requesting the page.
The server knows the IP address of the computer running the browser or the proxy , if any is used and could theoretically link a user's session to this IP address.
However, IP addresses are generally not a reliable way to track a session or identify a user. This means that several PCs will share a public IP address.
Furthermore, some systems, such as Tor , are designed to retain Internet anonymity , rendering tracking by IP address impractical, impossible, or a security risk.
A more precise technique is based on embedding information into URLs. The query string part of the URL is the part that is typically used for this purpose, but other parts can be used as well.
This method consists of the web server appending query strings containing a unique session identifier to all the links inside of a web page.
When the user follows a link, the browser sends the query string to the server, allowing the server to identify the user and maintain state.
These kinds of query strings are very similar to cookies in that both contain arbitrary pieces of information chosen by the server and both are sent back to the server on every request.
However, there are some differences. Since a query string is part of a URL, if that URL is later reused, the same attached piece of information will be sent to the server, which could lead to confusion.
For example, if the preferences of a user are encoded in the query string of a URL and the user sends this URL to another user by e-mail , those preferences will be used for that other user as well.
Moreover, if the same user accesses the same page multiple times from different sources, there is no guarantee that the same query string will be used each time.
For example, if a user visits a page by coming from a page internal to the site the first time, and then visits the same page by coming from an external search engine the second time, the query strings would likely be different.
If cookies were used in this situation, the cookies would be the same. Other drawbacks of query strings are related to security. Storing data that identifies a session in a query string enables session fixation attacks, referer logging attacks and other security exploits.
Transferring session identifiers as HTTP cookies is more secure. Another form of session tracking is to use web forms with hidden fields.
This technique is very similar to using URL query strings to hold the information and has many of the same advantages and drawbacks.
This approach presents two advantages from the point of view of the tracker. First, having the tracking information placed in the HTTP request body rather than in the URL means it will not be noticed by the average user.
Second, the session information is not copied when the user copies the URL to bookmark the page or send it via email, for example.
This data can be used instead of session cookies and is also cross-domain. The downside is that every separate window or tab will initially have an empty window.
Furthermore, the property can be used for tracking visitors across different websites, making it of concern for Internet privacy.
In some respects, this can be more secure than cookies due to the fact that its contents are not automatically sent to the server on every request like cookies are, so it is not vulnerable to network cookie sniffing attacks.
However, if special measures are not taken to protect the data, it is vulnerable to other attacks because the data is available across different websites opened in the same window or tab.
Apple uses a tracking technique called "identifier for advertisers" IDFA. This technique assigns a unique identifier to every user who buys an Apple iOS device such as an iPhone or iPad.
This identifier is then used by Apple's advertising network, iAd, to determine the ads that individuals are viewing and responding to. Because ETags are cached by the browser, and returned with subsequent requests for the same resource, a tracking server can simply repeat any ETag received from the browser to ensure an assigned ETag persists indefinitely in a similar way to persistent cookies.
Additional caching headers can also enhance the preservation of ETag data. ETags can be flushed in some browsers by clearing the browser cache.
Internet Explorer supports persistent information  in the browser's history, in the browser's favorites, in an XML store "user data" , or directly within a web page saved to disk.
Some web browser plugins include persistence mechanisms as well. The browser cache can also be used to store information that can be used to track individual users.
This technique takes advantage of the fact that the web browser will use resources stored within the cache instead of downloading them from the website when it determines that the cache already has the most up-to-date version of the resource.
After the user's initial visit, every time the user accesses the page, this file will be loaded from the cache instead of downloaded from the server.
Thus, its content will never change. A browser fingerprint is information collected about a browser's configuration, such as version number, screen resolution, and operating system, for the purpose of identification.
Fingerprints can be used to fully or partially identify individual users or devices even when cookies are turned off.
Basic web browser configuration information has long been collected by web analytics services in an effort to accurately measure real human web traffic and discount various forms of click fraud.
With the assistance of client-side scripting languages, collection of much more esoteric parameters is possible. In , EFF measured at least