Backgammon is one of the oldest board games around and players of the game could be found in Iran as early as 5, years gaskellandwalker.comue reading. PDF | The paper discusses in detail the description of Backgammon games and Murray, Harold James Ruthven (): A History of Board Games other than. Offline Backgammon That's right! You can now play Backgammon FREE and dive straight into one of the oldest and most strategy-intense board games ever!
BackgammonIn the world of backgammon John Crawford and Carol Crawford are synonymous Carol was the first lady ever to win the world championships in the history of. PDF | The paper discusses in detail the description of Backgammon games and Murray, Harold James Ruthven (): A History of Board Games other than. Eine Episode aus der Geschichte des Backgammon. Mark Driver: A History of Backgammon. Chuck Bower: History of Backgammon. Ulrich Schädler: Vom.
History Of Backgammon Navigation menu VideoHow People Cheat in Backgammon It is the oldest known recorded board game in history. Backgammon game was typically played on surfaces such as wood, using stones as markers, and dice made from bones, stones, wood or pottery and it can be traced back thousands of years BC to boardgames played by the Egyptians, Sumerians, Romans, and Persians. The Word Backgammon The earliest recorded use of the word "backgammon" was in , according to the Oxford Universal Dictionary. H.J.R. Murray, in A History of Board Games Other Than Chess, says that backgammon, the modern form of tables, was invented in England early in the seventeenth century. The two differences between backgammon and tables that Murray lists are slight but very interesting: . Backgammon has been associated with aristocracy and the ruling class throughout its long history. The Roman game of Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum is thought to be a descendant of Senet and is known to have been played on a similar board consisting of 3 x 12 rows of "points", with dice.
There is luck, sure, but it is indeed a game of skill because I suck at it. But then I consider how many layers of clothing Elizabethans wore all the time, and you know what?
Maybe backgammon was a sport back then. Does this make Murray the inventor of backgammon? Murray claimed backgammon was invented in England in the 17th century.
He also noted some minor differences in rules and wording between tables and backgammon, so they were slightly different games.
Another source that may be more plausible comes from Middle English: baec gamen. Not the most creative name, but it was a simpler time for entertainment branding.
Suffice to say, I side with the medieval church: backgammon is an evil game that should be burned. Backgammon is a game my wife and l began to play in our 40ies!
I have won every year and sill hold fist place by winning 17 games in a row! And certainly debates about hits were easier of settlement than disputes about tithes from Sir Roger de Coverley - who when he wished to obtain from the University a chaplain of piety and urbanity, in short a Christian minister, conditioned that he "should know something about backgammon".
Sir Roger was of course Addison and Steele's fictitious country gentleman, whose exploits entertained the readers of The Spectator And in Soame Jenyns composed the following verse:.
Here you'll be ever sure to meet A hearty welcome, though no treat; A house where quiet guards the door, Nor rural wits smoke, drink, and roar; Choice books, safe horses, wholesome liquor Billiards, backgammon, and the vicar.
The Entering division and the Home are common to both players. The Entering division must he either the right-hand near division, or the left-hand opposite division.
The pieces enter by throws, and all pieces must be entered before any leave the Entering division. On throwing doublets the player, after playing those doublets, is entitled to play the doublets underneath, which are always the complement of seven.
The first player to bear off all fifteen of their own checkers wins the game. If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers when the game ends, the winner scores a gammon , which counts for double stakes.
If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers and has some on the bar or in the winner's home board, the winner scores a backgammon , which counts for triple stakes.
To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube is usually used. The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled, but rather a marker, with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides to denote the current stake.
At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the midpoint of the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".
When the cube is centered, either player may start their turn by proposing that the game be played for twice the current stakes.
Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately. Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to that player.
For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.
There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.
In money games, a player is often permitted to "beaver" when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.
A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the "raccoon". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.
The opponent retains the doubling cube. An example of a "raccoon" is the following: White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.
Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.
Some players may opt to invoke the "Murphy rule" or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.
The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.
When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.
The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.
This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.
The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The "Crawford rule", named after John R.
Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead. If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.
Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game".
After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.
If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.
It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.
Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.
The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move. A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles.
Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the 24, 23 and 22 points.
The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.
Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is "safe".
All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.
Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.
Gul bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.
Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.
Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Misere backgammon to lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game.
Tabla is a Bulgarian variant of Backgammon, played without the doubling cube. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions.
For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain  or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.
Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.
Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture.
Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.
As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.
A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.
A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.
The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
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A clue to the rules comes from a text from Ovid 1 BC - 8 AD : "There is a sort of game confined by subtle method into as many lines as the slippery year has months: a small board has three counters on either side, whereon to join your pieces together is to conquer".
From this we can deduce that the board has 12 lines, each player has 3 dice and combining your pieces gives a big advantage.
Despite many speculations and conjectures from academics and games historians over the years, no more rules are known than this.
It isn't really even possible to say for sure that it is a race game and not, say, some kind of war game. Many games historians have had a go at the rules including HJR Murray, Roland Austin, Robbie Bell and more recently Irving Finkel and Ulrich Staedler but a paper on the game by Ulrich summed up the situation well when he said "We cannot say anything concerning the rules of Duodecim Scripta The earliest confirmed date for Duodecim Scripta is 2nd century BC from Publius Mucius Scaevola which mentions a formidable XII scripta "game of 12 points" player in ancient sources Quintilianus, Institutio oratoria, XI, chap.
For Senet, the argument is that both boards have a topological set of 3 x 12 points and were played with 3 x 6 sided dice but given that hardly anything else is known of the rules of Duodecim Scriptorum, it's a pretty speculative assertion.
There is also a gap of several centuries between the latest record of Senet and the earliest evidence for Duodecim Scripta. Similarly, Duodecim Scripta has 2 tables of 3 sets of 6 playing areas separated by a gap while Tabula has 2 tables of 2 sets of 6 points separated by a gap the bar so the theory goes that the game just lost one of the rows to become Tabula.
But that's quite a leap of faith with nothing else to go on so this author is unconvinced. The rules of Senet are understood much better, although details probably changed over time, so it is possible to compare those with the rules for Tabula.
Based on facts with reasonable certainty, a comparison of similarities with Backgammon can be made:. In Asia, the game of Nard appeared sometime prior to AD, in South West Asia or in Persia depending upon which version of history one believes, and variants are played today throughout the continent.